Tag Archives: education

The occupation with the most cowardly and brainless record…

Rajiv Lochan

A few years ago we had the sorry example of Indian professors of history from Indian universities who bent over backwards, hid facts, refused to be even handed in their analyses. When the judges asked them about the bases of their strongly held views on say the demolition of the Babri masjid, the #historyprofessors from JNU, DU etc. cut a very sorry figure

It would be hard to name any other occupation with a more cowardly record than academics, wrote Thomas Sowell in 2008. He was referring to American academics. His remarks would well fit Indian professors too. In addition to being cowardly the typical Indian academic is also brainless, without any honour and eager to follow someone in power– whether it be ideas from white America or sucking up to sundry prime ministers in India, Narendra Modi included. Little wonder that such academics are ignored by everyone, including those whom they revere.

A few years ago we had the sorry example of Indian professors of history from Indian universities who bent over backwards, hid facts, refused to be even handed in their analyses. When the judges asked them about the bases of their strongly held views on say the demolition of the Babri masjid, the #historyprofessors from JNU, DU etc. cut a very sorry figure and had to confess that they had no bases for the views that they had been propagating in favour of the #Babrimasjid for so long.

Similarly, the professors of political science, sociology and economics. They revel in reproducing ideas and opinions they learn by watching graduate students from universities in the US and UK. They feel scared in providing details of their own field studies, especially when their field studies controvert the assertions of the white men from the west. Even their radicalism and questioning of the state and society in India is based on mindlessly copying various fashions from American and British universities.

Being a ‘leftist’ or a ‘Marxist’ came in as a good excuse for the cowardly Indian academic for claiming that their brainlessness was actually part of some wider academic trend in the world.

Rajiv Lochan is an acclaimed scholar, historian and columnist.

Education, learning, merit and the path to quagmire of mediocracy

Tapan Misra

It is important to realise that we will make a gross mistake if we measure success in terms of awards or positions of repute. Ultimately, what matters in life, is the respect you get from people who are not even your friends. In my view, success is attained when you are respected for what you are, what you have contributed. A nation is known by how they assess success and accordingly they shape their education and value systems for their future generations.

This is the season of declaration of results of board examinations. Nowadays, marks are so commonly high, they ceased to be discriminatory parameters for merits. Still parents, teachers, schools and society are goading the children to illusory heights of more and more marks. I am afraid, the days are not far off, when triple digit decimal points will be introduced in marks, obtained in board examinations.

For me, reaching at the fag end of sixth decade of my mortal existence, my experience says, marks do not mean much in life. Plenty of examples are there, if we care to look around. Swami Vivekananda did not have impressive scores in board or college examinations. My Google search of his academic performances, revealed:

• Entrance Examination- English: 47, Bengali – 76, history- 45;Mathematics- 38 ;total 206
• FA (First Arts Standard) : English – 46; Second language (here Bengali) – 36; History- 56; Mathematics-40;Logic (50 marks) -17; Psychology -34; total -229
• BA – English – 56;Second language – 43;Mathematics – 61; History – 56; Philosophy – 45; Total- 261

Nobody can dare evaluate Swamiji in terms of marks scored in board and college examinations. Swami Vivekananda was a prolific orator, author, thinker and India’s rennaissance personality. He was equally fecile in Sanskrit, Bengali and English. He is credited with bringing easily understandable colloquial Bengali in literature. At that time, all the literary Bengali was written in Sanskritised version, far removed from colloquial vocabulary. Even Rabindranath Tagore adopted Vivekananda-style writing in Bengali in colloquial version, more than a decade after Swami Vivekananda’s completion of mortal Avatar.

It is astounding, how in his short life of 39 years, he infused a pride in being Hindu and an Indian, with his lectures, sermons, writings and personal examples. He was modern day Shankarachrya, who resurrected Hinduism from morass of casteism, 700 years of subjugation and resigned to resultant loss of self esteem. Swami Vivekananda will be revered for eons to come for being a source of confidence and enlightenment.

We must be able to distinguish education from learning. Education is imparted by somebody else. Learning is internalisation of information and knowledge all by oneself. If education is not translated to learning, we will continue to produce more of mortal species and very very less of intellectual or creative giants.

Unfortunately, in India, merit has still not taken deep root in our psyche. Merit, still to a good extent, is subservient to genetic lineage and Godfathers, taken root in every sphere of knowledge and creativity, ranging from science to history writing to film making to news anchors. That is why, you will see, certain business families are having vice like grip on public and equity funded corporates. Ambition of meritorious business executives have to lose hope by colliding with the glass ceilings, firmly embedded in the corporates. It is still quite difficult to get any scientific awards or reaching leadership positions of scientific institutions, if you do not have Godfathers or are not favoured by unseen Opus Dei, controlling the institutions. Unfortunately, hardly any creative and knowledge institution is bereft of Opus Dei. The degrees to which they influence, varies from institution to institution. Older the institution, lesser the regard for merit. Politics in Science and Arts can put to shame science of politics. I must say, there are exceptions and their numbers are slowly increasing. Still they have not reached the critical mass, which can trigger true meritocracy.

It is still a struggle for meritorious people to reach positions of power, without compromising ethics and integrity. As Chanakya said, “Woodcutter first selects erect trees for chopping”. Only way to create forest of erect trees is to increase their numbers to such an extent that woodcutter should get tired. Ethics and integrity should be the flip side of merit. Together they lay strong foundation of meritocracy.

Our teachers and parents should inculcate the passion of creating or building something new. Look at those countries that have achieved greatness in science, sports, industry, engineering, medicine, arts, music or any other field of human achievement. They are distinctly marked by societal and individual passions for creativity and charting the unknown waters. The path to each achievement of knowing the unknown, is strewn with risks of failure, challenge of learning anything new. But the reward outpaces the struggle. I do agree, there are easier paths of following status quo or choosing a path, already trodden many a times earlier. But it leads to surer path to quagmire of mediocracy.

It is important to realise that we will make a gross mistake if we measure success in terms of awards or positions of repute. Ultimately, what matters in life, is the respect you get from people who are not even your friends. In my view, success is attained when you are respected for what you are, what you have contributed. A nation is known by how they assess success and accordingly they shape their education and value systems for their future generations.

The author Tapan Misra is a distinguished scientist with Department of Space and a trailblazer, who is respected globally for his immense contribution to India’s space programme.

We have arrived – naysayers excuse us

Tapan Misra

The author (left) at his alma mater, Ramakrishna Mission High School, on Teacher’s Day in 2019

We are our own hindrances

In 1972, I was a student of class five in Shibnath High School, on the banks of river Hoogly in the northern outskirts of Kolkata. Tumultuous time in Bengal – Naxalite movement was in peak. Starry eyed, idealistic young people were angry with everything. Staccato of guns, leftovers of Bangladesh War in 1971, would pierce through stillness of night for no reason. Occasional deaths of young people in gun battles used to remove for ever, one or two smiling, argumentative faces from animated discussions in the road corners. All the walls of the classes were scribbled with quotes from Mao Zedong and Lin Biao. The quotes conveyed a meaningless gravity to young minds. No classes were there. Except one teacher, an old man, Baidyanath Babu daring to defy all the surrounding madness. He was religious in taking maths classes for a handful of students like me, who were bored without schools and roaming around nook and corners of locality, chasing pigeons, wheeling a defunct, rickety cycle tyre, playing card games with cards made from used cigarette packets.

In December 1972, my sister forced me to take entrance examination for class six in Ramakrishna Mission High School in our locality. It had day scholars, boarders and a sizeable orphans as students. I just could not make head or tail of Bengali and English question papers. Too tough for a student who almost missed schooling that year. To my surprise, I got selected. Headmaster Samir Maharaj, who is no more, called my father and told him that his ward was selected for scoring full marks in math paper, though I scored neat zeroes in language papers. When I look back, my selection carried very important message which all educationists and parents must grasp : I was selected for what I was, not for what I should have been.

From subsequent experiences for over three decades, I feel there are two major issues in our present day culture which are preventing us to realise our own potentials.

A. Parental pressure is degenerating our children

There lies folly of our education and parental culture. Parents want to force children to live the parents’ own dreams instead of children’s. They want to dictate what the children should opt for. Parents and teachers seem to know everything about the children, forgetting that children are going to live and adjust to a world which will probably be completely different from what their parents and teachers are experiencing. They confuse coaching classes with schooling. Scoring in IIT or engineering entrance examination is regarded as the highest achievement. There is a hierarchy of subjects which are assumed important to shine in life. Medical, Engineering, Science, Commerce, Humanities in the descending orders of preference. Children are constantly bombarded in prestigious colleges and homes – ultimate aim in life is to live abroad. You are taught and conditioned to resent yourself, apolegetic of India and Indianness. We are producing a set of of students, who are not proud of themselves. They are made to feel that they are lesser mortals.

I have been Chairing ISRO’s interview board for long. We have two steps process, we screen first through written examination. Then final selection is based on viva voce. We observed that the typical screening ratio in written examination of boys to girls is 70:30, commensurate with existing gender ratios in engineering. Surprise sprang up in viva voce. Almost 50% of girls were selected vis-a-vis boys to the tune of 30 to 35%. This reversal puzzled us.

When I analysed, I could understand that Indian parents don’t spend much on daughters, don’t send them to expensive coaching centres. Generally they are sent to nearby, not so known, colleges to reduce expenditure. Parents want their sons to be successful at any cost, sending them to costly tuition centres, faraway expensive colleges. In essence boys lose touch of their originality whereas girls retain them as they have no compulsion to lose them. So when faced with questions to test original thought process in our viva voce, girls fared better.

I had another observation. I found boys want to opt for catchy and easy option of work preference like VLSI, programming etc. Whereas tedious and difficult jobs like RF circuit and MMIC design have no takers. Since girls do not protest much, these jobs were forced on them. I must confess that girls executed RF designs in stellar fashion. In my time, SAC had the largest corpus of own MMIC design in India, ranging from L-band to milli metre wave bands. It gives me pride that 80% of them are designed by girls.

Learning is more important than education. Excessive parental attention ruins originality. The above examples show a relaxed education gives better learning and gives courage to take risk as well as succeed.

B. Prevalence of lack of self confidence

This psychological affliction of lack of self confidence has spread to industry, labs, universities. In general there is a feeling that we can only repeat anything what has been done abroad. There is always a disbelief that we can do on our own for the first time. We ourselves have less conviction when we oft repeat that we are second to none.

During Chandrayan 2 time frame, we had difficulty of getting the optical and infra red spectrometer. The imported one had poorer performance by a factor of 2. ISRO never had any history of design of spectrometer optics. All famed designers were not ready to take the risk, as odds against success were very high. I called a meeting of all the designers and I just asked who of them want to take a career risk by attempting spectrometer optics design. One lady raised her hand. I made her leader. Seeing her, a few more volunteered, raising their hands and fingers to different extents. I made them team members. Rest is history. We flew Made in India spectrometer in Chandrayan 2, built at very minimal fraction of import cost.

In India everybody forgot the name of R M Vasagam and Leo Lesrado, makers of satellite and SATCOM payload of our first communication satellite, APPLE in 1981. We built its apogee boost motor, first time in Asia. Surprisingly we did not build upon them. We went for importing 4 satellites of INSAT 1 series, of which one only worked reasonably. I still get a feeling that had we shown our courage to build upon our own contribution, we would have advanced our communication programme by a decade.

Similarly with our Radar imaging programme. In our country, Radar imaging is more important than optical imaging because of widespread cloud, smog and dust coverage. But we arrived in space based Radar imaging scene three decades late. Reason was simple, it was difficult to convince who mattered thar imaging radar can be built by ourselves, they can be built in India, at much cheaper a cost and there is no need to look for a “Suitable Boy”. I, being in the ring, always had the pressure of proving ourselves, lest all our dreams get shelved.

We introduced two new imaging modes in RISAT : Hybrid polarimetry and extra long sliding spotlight imaging mode for very high resolution imaging. Just because none of the SARs in international arena, had these features, I had to personally convince people umpteen times that these modes are not flukes, but scientifically feasible. I am happy to state that we set the standards and these features are adopted by all the current and future soaceborne SAR systems.

We built India’s first High Throughput Satellite, HTS, when nobody believed designers. I fact we were ready for launch when wise people were still on the lookout of imported counterpart, at a whooping cost. This caused piquant situation. GSAT 11 was launched, albeit with lot of drama and personal cost, which I ignored as nation is larger than individual egos.

Many people, including those who built India’s space programme, expressed doubt on my posts(**) whether we are imagining too much that our space programme can be more democratic. Whether we have engineers in the country who can dare tread uncharted path. Can they bring the magic of ISRO widespread? I believe, if we are conscious of our limitations, we are in a better position to circumvent it on our way to success. Let us shed our own inhibitions. It is high time to thump on the table, “Yes we have arrived. Naysayers, kindly excuse us.”

1. https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10218220635653855&id=1428772703

  1. https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10218269300350442&id=1428772703
  2. https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10218387671149638&id=1428772703)

The author, Tapan Misra, is a distinguished scientist. At present he is Advisor in the Department of Space, Government of India. Earlier he was Director Space Application Centre, Ahmedabad.

JNU and the Long March to Nowhere

Rajiv Lochan

JNU has been mired in controversies. Poor management, poor academic performance, poor facilities for research in a university whose only objective is research. It is a small university with a huge campus. The campus is over 1000 acres. On this campus work 600 faculty, 1200 non-teaching staff, 3100 UG/PG students and 5200 PhD researchers. Almost the entire faculty and half the non-teaching staff have campus housing. Of the 8300 students enrolled at JNU, 6900 have been provided hostel facility. A total of 83% of all students live in university hostels.

The interesting detail about JNU is that it thrived on gaming the system. With a change in government in 2014, the system refused to be gamed any further. Since then JNU has only generated bad news. It would be one of the few universities of the world about which so many people say that it should be shut down. It would also be one of the few universities which subsists entirely on government handouts. Its alumni do not seem to make enough money to donate it to the university. Or, perhaps the alumni think that JNU is not worth donating money. JNU claims that it provides opportunities to grow for those without resources.

Rajiv Lochan

Rajiv Lochan, the author, has studied Modern Indian History and was a research scholar at the Centre for Historical Studies in JNU. He is an acclaimed historian and is widely respected in the academic sphere.