Tag Archives: CIA

CIA Factbook: Afghanistan is world’s largest producer of opium and the US is largest consumer of cocaine

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Afghanistan is world’s largest producer of opium while the United States of America is the world’s largest consumer of cocaine and a major consumer of ecstasy and Mexican methamphetamine, besides the US is also a money-laundering center.

This information is derived from the American Central Intelligence Agency’s most popular publication — The World Factbook.

Presenting the global scenario visi-a-vis illicit drugs, the CIA document, which falls short of giving the latest data, states that worldwide coca leaf cultivation in 2013 amounted to about 165,000 hectares, assuming a stable crop in Bolivia; Colombia produced slightly less than half of the worldwide crop, followed by Peru and Bolivia; potential pure cocaine production increased 7% to 640 metric tons in 2013; Colombia conducts an aggressive coca eradication campaign, Peru has increased its eradication efforts, but remains hesitant to eradicate coca in key growing areas, it has been pointed out.

In terms of opiates, the CIA Factbook goes on to state that worldwide illicit opium poppy cultivation increased in 2013, with potential opium production reaching 6,800 metric tons.

Afghanistan is world’s primary opium producer, accounting for 82% of the global supply; Southeast Asia was responsible for 12% of global opium; Pakistan produced 3% of global opium; Latin America produced 4% of global opium, and most was refined into heroin destined for the US market (2015).

What the CIA Factbook says about some countries

Afghanistan

world’s largest producer of opium; poppy cultivation increased 7 percent, to a record 211,000 hectares in 2014 from 198,000 hectares in 2013, while eradication dropped sharply; relatively low opium yields due to poor weather kept potential opium production – 6,300 metric tons – below the record set in 2007; the Taliban and other antigovernment groups participate in and profit from the opiate trade, which is a key source of revenue for the Taliban inside Afghanistan; widespread corruption and instability impede counterdrug efforts; most of the heroin consumed in Europe and Eurasia is derived from Afghan opium; Afghanistan is also struggling to respond to a burgeoning domestic opiate addiction problem; vulnerable to drug money laundering through informal financial networks; illicit cultivation of cannabis and regional source of hashish.

Australia

Tasmania is one of the world’s major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; major consumer of cocaine and amphetamines.

Hong Kong

Despite strenuous law enforcement efforts, faces difficult challenges in controlling transit of heroin and methamphetamine to regional and world markets; modern banking system provides conduit for money laundering; rising indigenous use of synthetic drugs, especially among young people.

India

World’s largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production.

Italy

Important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling.

Pakistan

Significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests.

Russia

limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates.

Singapore

Drug abuse is limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts, including carrying out death sentences; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering.

South Africa

transshipment center for heroin, hashish, and cocaine, as well as a major cultivator of marijuana in its own right; cocaine and heroin consumption on the rise; world’s largest market for illicit methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various east African countries, but increasingly producing its own synthetic drugs for domestic consumption; attractive venue for money launderers given the increasing level of organized criminal and narcotics activity in the region and the size of the South African economy.

Spain

Despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain’s long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime.

Turkey

key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US – via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls.

United Arab Emirates

The UAE is a drug transshipment point for traffickers given its proximity to Southwest Asian drug-producing countries; the UAE’s position as a major financial center makes it vulnerable to money laundering; anti-money-laundering controls improving, but informal banking remains unregulated.

United Kingdom

Producer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and synthetic drugs; money-laundering center.

United States of America

world’s largest consumer of cocaine (shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean), Colombian heroin, and Mexican heroin and marijuana; major consumer of ecstasy and Mexican methamphetamine; minor consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center.

CIA views Kashmir as the site of the world’s largest and most militarised Territorial dispute

Newsroom24x7 Staff

Indian Army and flood relief in Kashmir
Indian Army and flood relief in Kashmir

Washington DC: The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) views Kashmir as the “site of the world’s largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas)”.

Notwithstanding the numerous incidents of unprovoked firing and violation of ceasefire from the Pakistan side, CIA’s “World Factbook” talks of disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries and states that India and Pakistan have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have

More with regard to Indo-Pakistan disputes, CIA factbook points out that Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in the Gujarat State of India. To defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea.

Indian ArmyThe CIA factbook also states “since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue.”

The then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh met Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina in Dhaka, Bangladesh on September 06, 2011
Then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh met Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina in Dhaka, Bangladesh on September 06, 2011

Focusing on the then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s September 2011 visit to Bangladesh and the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh that had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, CIA points out that this had never been implemented.

CIA factbook draws attention to the referring of the maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea by Bangladesh and India’s Joint Border Committee with Nepal that continues to examine “contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River.”

The factbook also places on record that India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal


The Central Intelligence Agency of the US was created in 1947 with the signing of the National Security Act by President Harry S. Truman. The act also created a Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) to serve as head of the United States intelligence community; act as the principal adviser to the President for intelligence matters related to the national security; and serve as head of the Central Intelligence Agency.

CAI recognises the “changing global realities” that have led to the reordering of the national security agenda, According to CIA, these challenges have been met by:

  • Creating special, multidisciplinary centers to address high-priority issues such as nonproliferation, counter-terrorism, counter-intelligence, international organized crime and narcotics trafficking, environment, and arms control intelligence, and
  • Forging stronger partnerships between the several intelligence collection disciplines and all-source analysis.