Tiger Corridors in India
New Delhi: The National Tiger Conservation Authority in collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of India has published a document titled “Connecting Tiger Populations for Long-term Conservation”, which has mapped out 32 major corridors across the country, management interventions for which are operationalised through a Tiger Conservation Plan, mandated under section 38V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The list of macro/landscape level tiger corridors are as
|Sl. No.||Landscape||Corridor||States/ Country|
|1.||Shivalik Hills & Gangetic Plains||Rajaji-Corbett||Uttarakhand|
|(ii) Corbett-Dudhwa||Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal|
|(iii) Dudhwa-Kishanpur-Katerniaghat||Uttar Pradesh, Nepal|
|2.||Central India & Eastern Ghats||(i) Ranthambhore-Kuno-Madhav||Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan|
|(ii) Bandhavgarh-Achanakmar||Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh|
|(iii) Bandhavgarh-Sanjay Dubri-Guru Ghasidas||Madhya Pradesh|
|(iv) Guru Ghasidas-Palamau-Lawalong||Chhattisgarh & Jharkhand|
|(v) Kanha-Achanakmar||Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh|
|(vi) Kanha-Pench||Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra|
|(vii) Pench-Satpura-Melghat||Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra|
|(viii) Kanha-Navegaon Nagzira-Tadoba-Indravati||Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh|
|(ix) Indravati-Udanti Sitanadi-Sunabeda||Chhattisgarh, Odisha|
|(xi) Nagarjunasagar-Sri Venkateshwara National Park||Andhra Pradesh|
|3.||Western Ghats||(i) Sahyadri-Radhanagari-Goa||Maharashtra, Goa|
|(ii) Dandeli Anshi-Shravathi Valley||Karnataka|
|(v) Nagarahole-Bandipur-Mudumalai-Wayanad||Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|(vi) Nagarahole-Mudumalai-Wayanad||Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|(vii) Parambikulam-Eranikulam-Indira Gandhi||Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|(viii) Kalakad Mundanthurai-Periyar||Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|4.||North East||(i) Kaziranga-Itanagar WLS||Assam, Arunachal Pradesh|
|(ii) Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong||Assam|
|(v) Kaziranga-Papum Pane||Assam|
|(vi) Manas-Buxa||Assam, West Bengal, Bhutan|
|(vii) Pakke-Nameri-Sonai Rupai-Manas||Arunachal Pradesh, Assam|
|(viii) Dibru Saikhowa-D’Ering-Mehaong||Assam, Arunachal Pradesh|
|(ix) Kamlang-Kane-Tale Valley||Arunachal Pradesh|
|(x) Buxa-Jaldapara||West Bengal|
Further, a 3 pronged strategy to manage human-tiger negative interactions has been advocated as follows:-
- Material and logistical support: Funding support through the ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger, is provided to tiger reserves for acquiring capacity in terms of infrastructure and material, to deal with tigers dispersing out of source areas. These are solicited by tiger reserves through an Annual Plan of Operation (APO) every year which stems out from an overarching Tiger Conservation Plan (TCP), mandated under Section 38 V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Inter alia, activities such as payment of ex-gratia and compensation, periodic awareness campaigns to sensitize, guide and advise the general populace on man-animal conflict, dissemination of information through various forms of media, procurement of immobilization equipment, drugs, training and capacity building of forest staff to deal with conflict events are generally solicited.
- Restricting habitat interventions: Based on the carrying capacity of tigers in a tiger reserve, habitat interventions are restricted through an overarching TCP. In case tiger numbers are at carrying capacity levels, it is advised that habitat interventions should be limited so that there is no excessive spill over of wildlife including tigers thereby minimizing man-animal conflict. Further, in buffer areas around tiger reserves, habitat interventions are restricted such that they are sub-optimal vis-à-vis the core/critical tiger habitat areas, judicious enough to facilitate dispersal to other rich habitat areas only.
- Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs): The National Tiger Conservation Authority has issued following three SOPs to deal with man-animal conflict which are available in public domain:
- To deal with emergency arising due to straying of tigers in human dominated landscapes
- To deal with tiger depredation on livestock
- For active management towards rehabilitation of tigers from source areas at the landscape level.
The three SOPs inter alia includethe issue of managing dispersing tigers, managing livestock kills so as to reduce conflict as well as relocating tigers from source areas to areas where density of tiger is low, so that conflict in rich source areas does not occur.
In technical collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of India, the National Tiger Conservation Authority has also published a document titled ‘Eco-Friendly measures to mitigate impacts of Linear infrastructure on wildlife’ to safeguard these corridors from linear infrastructure development besides sensitizing user agencies which inter alia include Indian Railway Traffic Service Probationers, National Highways Authority of India personnel, Indian Railway Engineers, besides others.
An amount of Rs. 370 crores, Rs. 345 crores and Rs. 350 crores was allocated during the financial years 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 respectively, while an amount of Rs. 350 crores has been allocated for the current financial year under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger. Details of funds released under the ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger, during the last three years and the current year, State-wise, are as follows:
Funds released under the ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger, during the last three years and the current year, State-wise
|S. No.||State||2016-17||2017-18||2018-19||2019-20(as on 21.11.2019)|
|19.||AIL India Tiger Estimation (AITE) All Tiger Reserve States including Nagaland, Manipur and Goa.||0.00||14.93||24.8625||0.00|
(Rs. in Lakhs)
This information was provided by Minister of State, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change Babul Supriyo in written reply to a question in Rajya Sabha.