Washington DC: The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) views Kashmir as the “site of the world’s largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas)”.
Notwithstanding the numerous incidents of unprovoked firing and violation of ceasefire from the Pakistan side, CIA’s “World Factbook” talks of disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries and states that India and Pakistan have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have
More with regard to Indo-Pakistan disputes, CIA factbook points out that Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in the Gujarat State of India. To defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea.
The CIA factbook also states “since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue.”
Focusing on the then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s September 2011 visit to Bangladesh and the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh that had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, CIA points out that this had never been implemented.
CIA factbook draws attention to the referring of the maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea by Bangladesh and India’s Joint Border Committee with Nepal that continues to examine “contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River.”
The factbook also places on record that India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
The Central Intelligence Agency of the US was created in 1947 with the signing of the National Security Act by President Harry S. Truman. The act also created a Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) to serve as head of the United States intelligence community; act as the principal adviser to the President for intelligence matters related to the national security; and serve as head of the Central Intelligence Agency.
CAI recognises the “changing global realities” that have led to the reordering of the national security agenda, According to CIA, these challenges have been met by:
- Creating special, multidisciplinary centers to address high-priority issues such as nonproliferation, counter-terrorism, counter-intelligence, international organized crime and narcotics trafficking, environment, and arms control intelligence, and
- Forging stronger partnerships between the several intelligence collection disciplines and all-source analysis.